Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying (or six months if a woman is 35 or older). Women who can get pregnant but are unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile. About 10 percent of women (6.1 million) in the United States ages 15-44 have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Infertility — or the inability to get pregnant — is not uncommon. It affects about 12 percent of women between the ages of 15 and 44, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although infertility problems in general aren’t tied to any single medical condition, some women are more predisposed to having them. But what causes infertility in women?
It turns out there are several different causes of female infertility. Some women have no noticeable symptoms other than being unable to get pregnant. Others may experience pain and discomfort from a chronic medical condition.
Here are a few of the most common causes of infertility in women.
Common Causes of Infertility
When the pituitary gland, which regulates the body’s hormones and menstrual cycle, is not functioning properly, it can lead to an ovulation disorder. Some women may have no ovulation or very irregular menstrual cycles due to a hormonal imbalance that can be caused by stress, a thyroid disorder, being overweight or underweight, and poor nutrition.
Endometriosis, one of the top three causes of infertility in women, occurs when the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside of the uterus. This tissue also bleeds with each menstrual cycle, causing inflammation and pain. Scarring can build up and damage the ovaries or block the fallopian tubes, leading to infertility.
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is a common hormonal imbalance that interferes with the production or release of eggs in the ovaries. Women with PCOS may experience irregular menstrual cycles or prolonged menstrual periods. Other symptoms of include weight gain, insulin resistance, and skin problems. Some women, however, have no symptoms at all. These variations make it difficult to diagnose PCOS.
Fallopian tube blockage
Fallopian tubes, which connect the ovaries to the uterus, can become inflamed or blocked as a result of endometriosis scarring, infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, and other reasons. Since most eggs are fertilized in the fallopian tubes, the condition can interfere with conception.
Women over the age of 35 have a smaller number of eggs. Because the number of eggs declines year after year, it may become increasingly difficult for women to conceive as they age.
Other causes of female infertility include autoimmune diseases and certain types of cancer, especially if the cancer is treated with chemotherapy or radiation.
It’s important to know, however, that the inability to conceive a child can be due to a condition in either partner.